Over the years, significant progress has been made in understanding, diagnosing, and managing paediatric subglottic stenosis (SGS), leading to improved outcomes for affected infants and children.Recent updates in paediatric SGS have shed light on its aetiology and pathophysiology. While acquired stenosis due to prolonged intubation remains a common cause, there is growing recognition of congenital anomalies and inflammatory conditions contributing to SGS development. Researchers have identified specific genetic factors and abnormal wound healing processes that play a role in the development and progression of SGS.Advancements in diagnostic techniques have revolutionized the early detection of SGS in children. High-resolution airway endoscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions have significantly enhanced the accuracy and precision of diagnosis.Treatment strategies for paediatric SGS have also evolved. The multidisciplinary approach involving paediatric otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, gastroenterologist and other specialists has become the standard of care. Medical management, including anti-inflammatory agents and airway humidification, has proven effective in certain cases. Endoscopic interventions, such as balloon dilation and laser therapy, offer minimally invasive alternatives to traditional surgery, reducing the need for open reconstructive procedures.
Moreover, advancements in tissue engineering approaches have shown promising potential.Post-treatment care and long-term follow-up remain crucial aspects of managing paediatric SGS. Regular surveillance allows for timely detection of recurrent stenosis and other complications, ensuring continuous monitoring of the patient's airway function and overall well-being.
In conclusion, as research continues, the future holds the promise of even more effective and tailored approaches to tackle this challenging condition in the paediatric population.